Artwork by Toby Allen
By Jen L’Insalata

Stress has been cited for many adverse physical and mental health conditions and is linked to the proliferation of non-communicable disease epidemics in recent years. During the 1800’s most deaths were related to poor sanitary and hygienic conditions. Most deaths were attributed to outbreaks of cholera, Influenza, typhoid, and tuberculosis spread through unsanitary drinking water (Shern, Blanch, & Steverman, 2016).

In the 21st century, public health is still at risk. The US ranked 36th out of 194 for life expectancy in 2012 with the vast majority of deaths related to obesity, coronary heart disease, lung disease, and substance abuse. Most contemporary chronic illness has its roots in stress and it is estimated that nearly half of Americans will develop resulting mental health and addiction issues at some point during their lifetime (Shern, Blanch, & Steverman, 2016).

It is widely understood that a combination of genetic predisposition coupled with environmental influence shape over all human development. Many alterations in genetic material correlate with environmental stressors. In other words, genetic mutation and expression is strongly influenced by the environments which people are exposed to.

While manageable stress is considered important for healthy human development, toxic stress is not. Frequent, intense, and prolonged exposure to adversity including but not limited to physical and emotional abuse or violence, neglect, and economic hardship account for the source of much toxic stress. Acute or chronic exposure to traumatic events including death and sexual abuse also fall into the toxic stress category as does the persistence of less sever stressors including family instability and income insecurity (Shern, Blanch, & Steverman, 2016).

Stress alters development   over the course of a lifetime. Prenatal exposure to stress impacts developing structures of the fetus leading to adverse effects on memory and cognition. Early childhood stress often results in diminished behavioral, emotional, and impulse control. Individuals exposed to toxic stress during late adolescence and early adulthood develop a heightened fear response and are hyper responsive to stress stimuli (Shern, Blanch, & Steverman, 2016). Additionally, stress amplifies the aging process on both the brain and the body as a whole.

Stress causes structural remodeling of the brain and weakens neuro-connections within in the brain. Exposure to stress activates stress hormones and raises cortisol levels. Persistent elevation of cortisol levels increases the adverse effects on the connective structures within the amygdala; a structure commonly linked to cognitive and emotional regulation (Shern, Blanch, & Steverman, 2016 & Pagliaccio, Luby, & … Barch, 2015).

Genetic mutations occur throughout the short alleles of the serotonin transport promoter and produced heightened monoamine oxidise A activity. Heightened activity along the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis greatly effects the monoamine/serotonin structures and leads to additional cortisol release. It is the relationship between cortisol and amygdala connectivity that is believed to be a foundational component of internalizing pathology (Pagliaccio, Luby, & … Barch, 2015).

Internalizing pathology such and depression and anxiety contribute additional stress to an individual’s life. Symptoms of both disorders have dehabilitating effects on one’s ability to function in a socioeconomic capacity and produce feeling of dependency on unhealthy relationships and substances. Thus the cycle of stress, cell malfunction, and disorder is perpetuated.



Pagliaccio, D., Luby, J. L., Bogdan, R., Agrawal, A., Gaffrey, M. S., Belden, A. C., & … Barch, D. M. (2015). Amygdala functional connectivity, HPA axis genetic variation, and life stress in children and relations to anxiety and emotion regulation. Journal Of Abnormal Psychology, 124(4), 817-833. doi:10.1037/abn0000094

Shern, D. L., Blanch, A. K., & Steverman, S. M. (2016). Toxic stress, behavioral health, and the next major era in public health. American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry, 86(2), 109-123. doi:10.1037/ort0000120


Theories of Moral Development

Jen L’Insalata

Morality is often defined as an individual’s ability to judge and understand what is right and wrong and then to act in accordance to what they judge to be right. An individual’s moral and belief system influence their behaviors. Behaviors aligned with personal beliefs and morals help to build self-concept and self-esteem (Broderick, & Blewitt, 2010).

A child’s early sense of morals are influenced by a system of rewards and punishment established by the caregiver. Young children will act in accordance of with the egocentric self to meet the standards of their primary caregiver and avoid punishment. Perspective-taking improves and parental established morals give way to a conscience that intertwines emotions, cognition, and behavior (Broderick, & Blewitt, 2010).

Despite cultural and religious influences on morality, there are several universal component that establish good morals. Generally speaking, morality take into account the concern for others, a sense of justice and fairness, honesty and trustworthiness, and self-control (Broderick, & Blewitt, 2010). Feelings of morality and actions are often at a conflict and moral conduct appears to be determined more by situational assessment then by moral reasoning (Broderick, & Blewitt, 2010).

Several theories surrounding moral development exist. Freud discussed in his Psychoanalytic Theory that infants and young children are driven by the impulses of the self-serving id. The superego emerges and establishes a source of morals around preschool age (Broderick, & Blewitt, 2010). Freud believed these morals stemmed from an internalized system of rewards and punishments driven by parental conflict. Around the age of three, vague sexual desires toward the parent of the opposite sex and leads to an internal conflict and competition with the parent of the same sex. The solution to this conflict is to identify with the dominant same sex parent in order to be like them and satisfy this sexual longing (Broderick, & Blewitt, 2010). Morals are established by imitating the same sex parent’s actions.

Later research has failed to support Freud’s Psychoanalytic predictions. Finding show that children as young as eighteen to twenty-four months are capable of understanding empathy. This is inconsistent with Freud’s timeline for the emergence of the id ego and superego (Broderick, & Blewitt, 2010). Toddlers do however preform pro-social actions as a willingness to comply with the authority of their parents. The Psychoanalytic Theory associates this compliance with a fear of the same sex parental conflict. This concept contradicts research establishing that secure attachment and warm affectionate parental styles forester pro-social behavior and moral development (Broderick, & Blewitt, 2010).

Cognitive Theories of moral development center on the works of Piaget, Kohlberg, and Gilligan and emphasize changes in logical thinking at the core of moral development. Piaget theorized that there are three stages to moral development, premoral, heteronomous, and autonomous (Broderick, & Blewitt, 2010). In studies, Piaget presented children with moral dilemmas and asked them to assess the behavior of the protagonist or the rules of a game. During the premoral stage, infants have no concern for rules and often make up their own rules to serve an egocentric purpose. Around age five, children enter the heteronomous stage and view morals and rules through a realist perspective. They view rules at concrete and never to be broken. Violation of rules requires immediate justice and punishment. During middle childhood socialization and perspective-taking abilities become more refined. The child transitions into the autonomous stage and views morals as a social agreement to promote fairness. Rules can be modified and amended to serve a higher social purpose (Broderick, & Blewitt, 2010).

Kohlberg expanded on Piaget’s theory and assessed moral development beyond childhood into adulthood. Kohlberg based much of his work off philosophical concepts of morality referenced in Plato’s The Republic (Jorgensen, 2006) which morality is centered on justice. Utilizing unconventional philosophical scenarios, Kohlberg established three levels of moral reasoning each broken into stages. The preconventional level corresponds with Piaget’s heteronomous stage and established that children follow rules to avoid punishment and judgment from a superior authority during stage one. During stage two, children follow rules to serve their own interest, however may include the interests of others (Broderick, & Blewitt, 2010).  The conventional level is reached during adolescence and young adulthood. In stage three, social relationships become moral motivators and shared interests trump personal interest. Stage four focuses on social and societal order. Morals and behaviors at this stage are motivated by contributions to society, responsibility, and laws (Broderick, & Blewitt, 2010).  The postconvetional levels focus on universal standards of justice, democratic principles, and individual rights. Stage five establishes a moral social contract and is reached around adulthood. Stage six takes a more theoretical approach and addresses abstract concepts of social justice (Broderick, & Blewitt, 2010).

Research supports both Piaget and Kohlberg and shows that children indeed pay attention to the consequences and punishments surrounding moral violations and older children pay more attention to the intent of the protagonist to establish moral basis (Broderick, & Blewitt, 2010).  However finding show that children have a greater capacity for focusing on intentions and moral reasoning then given credit in the theories of Piaget and Kohlberg. Studies also show that preschoolers are able to differentiate between an intentional lie and a mistake and judge the liar more harshly (Broderick, & Blewitt, 2010).  Piaget believed that children believed all rules to be handed down from a superior authority. Children do however show a philosophical understanding of the difference between moral rules, conventional rules, and cultural rules. Children have the capacity to view cultural rules as arbitrary, but adhere more strictly to personal self-governed rules (Broderick, & Blewitt, 2010). Thus demonstrating that children have the understanding moral context.

Gilligan often criticized Kohlberg stating that his description of moral reasoning focused primarily on cerebral components of justice, ignoring the care and concern involved in moral reasoning (Jorgensen, 2006). Gilligan argued that morals developed on different trajectories for males and female. Women are more inclined to introduce sympathy, empathy and compassion into moral reasoning, whereas males utilize justice as an emphasis for moral reasoning (Broderick, & Blewitt, 2010).  This feminine viewpoint has earned Gilligan criticism question her bias in her approach to moral reasoning (Jorgensen, 2006).



Jorgensen, G. (2006). Kohlberg and Gilligan: duet or duel?. Journal Of Moral Education, 35(2), 179-196. doi:10.1080/03057240600681710

Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2010). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN: 9780137152476

Freud and Attachment

boy and gearsJen L’Insalata

Freudian psychoanalytic theory presents concepts which have shaped and influenced many aspects of the field of psychology. Much of Freud’s theory was developed from observations and case studies of many of his own patients. He is often criticized for a lack of experimental investigation and hypothesis testing throughout his theory and an over emphasis placed on psychosexual components (Feist, Feist, & Roberts, 2013). Yet despite the criticism, Freudian psychoanalysis explores ways in which unconscious motivations influence personality and behavior and still maintains relevancy in psychological practice today.

Freud explored how unconscious motivations influence emotional states, personality and outward manifestations of behavior. According to Freud, such motivation have root in past experience (Feist, Feist, & Roberts, 2013). In essence behavior is shaped by an unconscious struggle to reduce emotional tensions caused by our past traumas.

A core component of psychoanalytic theory emphasizes maladaptive coping mechanisms such as defense mechanisms and repression (Feist, Feist, & Roberts, 2013). Individuals who experience trauma often utilizes maladaptive defense mechanisms to reduce psychological tension. Often, individuals suffering from severe PTSD repress memories of the traumatic event. This is a temporary solution which allows the individual to function in immediate aftermath. According to Freud, manifestations of the unconscious repression manifest in recurrent dreams commonly experienced by individuals suffering from PTSD (Feist, Feist, & Roberts, 2013). Psychoanalytic theory can be applied in the treatment of severe trauma as the individual begins to bring the unconscious to light and acknowledge their past experiences.

Attachment theory places emphasis on the earliest of childhood experiences and emphasizes ways in which infants form bonds with their caregivers. As much of Feud’s theory relies heavily on early childhood and past experiences, concepts of personality and behavior manifestations focus heavily on such bonds. Freud believed that attachment centered on a child’s identification with the same sex parent and their desire to be with the opposite sex parent. Freud theorized that these unconscious sexual desires manifested in overcoming what he called the Oedipus and Electra complex (Feist, Feist, & Roberts, 2013). Successful resolution of the unconscious sexual motivators in such complexes allow for secure attachment bonds to parents and healthy interpersonal relationships in the future.

Although the Oedipus and Electra complex are highly discredited, Freud’s theory paved the way for his contemporaries to explore the relationship between healthy and secure attachments to caregivers. Early childhood attachments are viewed as an underlying component in many theories on healthy human functioning and interpersonal behavior. Attachment theory serves as a heavily emphasized component in developmental and behavioral psychology.



Feist, J., Feist, G. J., & Roberts, T. (2013). Theories of personality (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.